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Oracle9i Database Getting Started
Release 2 (9.2) for Windows

Part Number A95490-01
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Active Directory

Oracle security and administration are integrated with Windows 2000 through Active Directory, Microsoft's directory service. Oracle uses Active Directory for enterprise-level security and schema management.


To verify the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a computer system, often as a prerequisite for allowing access to resources in a system.


Permission given to a user, application, or process to access an Oracle database or operating system.


A representative copy of data. This copy includes important parts of your database such as control files, redo log files, and datafiles.

A backup is a safeguard against unexpected data loss; if you lose your original data, then you can use the backup to make the data available again. A backup is also a safeguard against an application error; if an application makes incorrect changes, then you can restore the backup.


Microsoft's Component Object Model is an object-oriented programming architecture and a set of operating system services. These services notify running application components of significant events and ensure that they are authorized to run. COM/COM+ is intended to make it relatively easy to create business applications that work well with Microsoft Transaction Server in Windows NT and Windows 2000.

connect string

See net service name.

control files

Files that record the physical structure of a database and contain the database name, the names and locations of associated databases and online redo log files, the time stamp of the database creation, the current log sequence number, and checkpoint information.

data dictionary

A set of read-only tables that provide information about a database.


See dynamic link library.


To convert the data in an Oracle database into an earlier release. See upgrade and migrate.

dynamic link library

An executable file that a Windows application can load when needed.

external procedures

Functions written in a third-generation language (C, for example) and callable from within PL/SQL or SQL as if they were PL/SQL functions or procedures.

external user

The Windows operating system can authenticate a user, who can then access the Oracle database without being prompted for a password. External users are typically regular database users (non-database administrators) to whom you assign standard database roles (such as CONNECT and RESOURCE), but do not want to assign the SYSDBA (database administrator) or SYSOPER (database operator) privilege.

Globalization Support

The Oracle architecture that ensures that database utilities, error messages, sort order, date, time, monetary, numeric, and calendar conventions automatically adapt to the native language and locale.


Represents a unique registry subkey for each Oracle home directory in which you install products. A new HOMEID is created and the ID counter incremented each time you install products to a different Oracle home directory on one computer. Each HOMEID contains its own configuration parameter settings for installed Oracle products.


Represents the name of an Oracle home. In Oracle9i release 2 (9.2), all Oracle homes have a unique HOME_NAME.

initialization parameter file (init.ora)

An ASCII text file that contains information needed to initialize a database and instance.


Every running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance. When a database is started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle allocates a memory area called the System Global Area and starts one or more Oracle processes. This combination of the System Global Area and Oracle processes is called an instance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the associated database's data efficiently and serve the users of the database.


A simple, low-level serialization mechanism to protect shared data structures in the System Global Area.


The Oracle server process that listens for and accepts incoming connection requests from client applications. The listener process starts up Oracle database processes to handle subsequent communications with the client; then it goes back to listening for new connection requests.


A configuration file that describes one or more Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) listeners on a server.

Microsoft Management Console

An application that serves as a host for administrative tools called snap-ins. By itself, Microsoft Management Console does not provide any functionality.

Microsoft Transaction Server

A transaction processing system based on COM/COM+ that runs on an Internet or network server.


To upgrade or downgrade an Oracle database or convert the data in a non-Oracle database into an Oracle database.


To associate a database with an instance that has been started.


See Microsoft Transaction Server

multiple Oracle homes

The capability of having more than one Oracle home on a computer.

net service name

The name used by clients to identify an Oracle Net server and the specific system identifier or database for the Oracle Net connection. A net service name is mapped to a port number and protocol. Also known as a connect string, database alias, host string, or service name.

This also identifies the specific SID or database to which the connection is attaching, not just the Oracle Net server.

network listener

A listener on a server that listens for connection requests for one or more databases on one or more protocols. See listener.

network service

In an Oracle application network, a service performs tasks for its service consumers. For example, a Names Server provides name resolution services for clients.


Protected by a process often used by companies for intellectual property written in the form of Java programs. The obfuscation process mixes up Java symbols found in the code. It leaves the original program structure intact, allowing the program to run correctly, while changing the names of the classes, methods, and variables in order to hide the intended behavior. Although it is possible to decompile and read non-obfuscated Java code, obfuscated Java code is sufficiently difficult to decompile to satisfy U.S. government export controls.


See Oracle Call Interface.


See Optimal Flexible Architecture.


See Oracle Internet Directory.

Optimal Flexible Architecture

A set of file naming and placement guidelines for Oracle software and databases.

Oracle Call Interface

An application programming interface that enables you to manipulate data and schemas in an Oracle database. You compile and link an Oracle Call Interface application in the same way that you compile and link a non-database application. There is no need for a separate preprocessing or precompilation step.

Oracle Internet Directory

An Oracle database-based LDAP V3 directory server, used for centralizing database user, Oracle Net network connector, and database listener parameters.

Oracle Net

The Oracle network interface that enables Oracle tools running on network workstations and servers to access, modify, share, and store data on other servers.

Oracle Net Naming

Oracle Net Naming with Active Directory stores and resolves names through Active Directory.

Oracle PKI

Oracle Advanced Security includes Oracle PKI (public key infrastructure) integration for authentication and single sign-on. Oracle-based applications are integrated with the PKI authentication and encryption framework, using Oracle Wallet Manager and Oracle Enterprise Login Assistant.

Oracle Protocol Support

A product that maps the functions of a given network protocol into Oracle Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) architecture. This process translates TNS function calls into requests to the underlying network protocol. This allows TNS to act as an interface among all protocols. Oracle Net requires Oracle Protocol Support.

Oracle services

Windows services that are associated with particular Oracle components.


ORACLE_BASE is the root of the Oracle directory tree. If you install an OFA-compliant database using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, then ORACLE_BASE is X:\oracle where X is any hard drive (for example, C:\oracle).


Corresponds to the environment in which Oracle products run. This environment includes the location of installed product files, the PATH variable pointing to the binary files of installed products, registry entries, net service names, and program groups.

If you install an OFA-compliant database, using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, then Oracle home (known as \ORACLE_HOME in this guide) is located beneath X:\ORACLE_BASE. It contains subdirectories for Oracle software executables and network files.


Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL.

PL/SQL enables you to mix SQL statements with procedural constructs. You can define and run PL/SQL program units such as procedures, functions, and packages.


A programming tool that enables you to embed SQL statements in a high-level source program.


A right to run a particular type of SQL statement or to access another user's object.


A mechanism in an operating system that can run an executable. (Some operating systems use the terms job or task.) A process normally has its own private memory area in which it runs. On Windows a process is created when an application runs (such as Oracle or Microsoft Word). In addition to an executable program, all processes consist of at least one thread. The Oracle master process contains hundreds of threads.

raw partitions

Portions of a physical disk that are accessed at the lowest possible disk (block) level.


To restore a physical backup is to reconstruct it and make it available to the Oracle server. To recover a restored backup is to update it using redo records (that is, records of changes made to the database after the backup was taken). Recovering a backup involves two distinct operations: rolling back all changes made in uncommitted transactions to their original state, and rolling forward to a more current time by applying redo data.

redo log buffer

A circular buffer in the System Global Area that contains information about changes made to the database.

redo log files

Files that contain a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance failure occurs, then the redo log files are used to recover the modified data that was in memory.


A Windows repository that stores configuration information for a computer.

remote database

A database on a computer other than the local database.


The process of copying and maintaining database objects in multiple databases that make up a distributed database system.


Named groups of related privileges. You can grant roles to users or other roles.


Named collections of objects, such as tables, views, clusters, procedures, and packages, associated with particular users.


Executable processes installed in the Windows registry and administered by Windows. Once services are created and started, they can run even when no user is logged on to the computer.

service name

See net service name.


See System Global Area.

Shared Server Process

A server configuration which allows many user processes to share very few server processes. The user processes connect to a dispatcher background process, which routes client requests to the next available shared server process.


See system identifier.


Administrative tools that run within Microsoft Management Console.


(1) Information stored in rollback segments to provide transaction recovery and read consistency. Rollback segment information can be used to re-create a snapshot of a row before an update.

(2) A point-in-time copy of a master table located on a remote site. Read-only snapshots can be queried, but not updated. Updateable snapshots can be queried and updated. They are periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table, and at the snapshot site.

starter database

A preconfigured, ready-to-use database that requires minimal user input to create.


A special database administration role that contains all system privileges with the ADMIN OPTION, and the SYSOPER system privilege. SYSDBA also permits CREATE DATABASE actions and time-based recovery.


A special database administration role that permits a database administrator to perform STARTUP, SHUTDOWN, ALTER DATABASE OPEN/MOUNT, ALTER DATABASE BACKUP, ARCHIVE LOG, and RECOVER, and includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

System Global Area

A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an Oracle instance.

system identifier

A unique name for an Oracle instance. To switch between Oracle databases, users must specify the desired system identifier. The system identifier is included in the CONNECT DATA parts of the connect descriptors in a tnsnames.ora file, and in the definition of the network listener in a tnsnames.ora file.


One of two standard database administrator usernames automatically created with each database. (The other username is SYS.). The SYSTEM username is the preferred username for database administrators to use for database maintenance.


A database is divided into one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. Tablespaces are divided into logical units of storage called segments, which are further divided into extents.


An individual path of execution within a process. Threads are objects within a process that run program instructions. Threads allow concurrent operations within a process so that a process can run different parts of its program simultaneously on different processors. A thread is the most fundamental component that can be scheduled on Windows.


A file that contains connect descriptors mapped to net service names. The file can be maintained centrally or locally, for use by all or individual clients.

trace file

Each server and background process can write to an associated trace file. When a process detects an internal error, it dumps information about the error to its trace file. Some of the information written to a trace file is intended for the database administrator, while other information is intended for Oracle Support Services. Trace file information is also used to tune applications and instances.


To convert the data in an Oracle database into a later release. See downgrade and migrate.


A name that can connect to and access objects in a database.


A selective presentation of the structure and data of one or more tables. Views can also be based on other views.

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